December 17, 2009

How to fight against global worming ?

You should read  this before continue this article..There are non-flying vacuum-like machines inside power company smokestacks. They are called "scrubbers." What they do is capture the CO2 coming up a smokestack before it gets into the air, and the concentrated CO2 is then gathered, transported and eventually shoved down a hole. Usually a deep hole, where it's supposed to sit for a long, long time.
The advantage is extra CO2 doesn't get into the air. The disadvantage: It's expensive to isolate CO2, expensive to transport, expensive to find and fill a hole, and the hole might leak.
The other possibility is to use less carbon. We rely on oil and coal and natural gas (all carbon-based) to heat ourselves, cool ourselves, light our homes, drive our cars, run our businesses. Carbon is, even now, cheap, abundant and releases energy easily. That's why it has been popular since the first cave person burnt a log. But carbon is not the only atom in town. We can shop around.

4 rivers declared ecologically critical

Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority (BIWTA) on December 15 declared the four rivers and its foreshores, adjacent to the capital, ecologically critical to save the rivers from encroachers and pollution.
They banned dumping sewage from home, industries and other institutions, setting up industries which pollute soil, water, air and sound and any work which can change the natural character of rivers Buriganga, Turag, Shitalakhya and Balu.

October 10, 2009

pollution free energy source

Now energy is produced from the following sources
  • Coal -(Disadvantages: Pollution/Strip Mining)
  • Natural Gas - (Disadvantages:Cost and Lack of Infrastructure)
  • Hydro - (Disadvantages:Limited Availability/Environmental Concerns)
  • Wind - (Disadvantages:Limited Site and Resource Availability)
  • Solar Photovoltaic - (Disadvantages:Higher Cost)
  • Nuclear – (Disadvantages:Waste disposal)
Among this power sources Solar PV (Photovoltaic) systems effectively deliver 10 Watts per square foot. Not one square inch of new land would be required to site PV. Theoretically, there are adequate residential, commercial, Government rooftops, and parking structures in California to power a substantial percentage of our State's electrical needs from solar.
At today's prices, a typical solar system costs approximately $6.00/watt, installed and has an operating life in excess of 25 years. For all intents and purposes, maintenance and operating costs are minimal.

October 5, 2009

What can you do about Global Warming ?

 Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas. It is produced both naturally and through human activities, such as burning gasoline, coal, oil, and wood.

Are you wandering that i start this topic with Carbon dioxide ?? Carbon dioxide is the main green house gas cause for global worming.So CO2 emission produced by your car is a cause of  the global warming.So what can you do ? Many thing you can do just decrease your petrol or gas consumption by car.Do not use the car if you in long ride.Another nice solve can be the use of pollution free Hybrid vehicle.

Effect of Carbon dioxide in global worming

Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas. It is produced both naturally and through human activities, such as burning gasoline, coal, oil, and wood.The carbon dioxide itself can cause headache, dizziness, nausea and other symptoms.CO2 plays an important role in the energy balance of our planet: It acts like a blanket over the planet by trapping long-wave radiation, which would otherwise radiate heat away from the planet . CO2 in the atmosphere will remain for a very long time, of the order of thousands of years.

To alleviate global warming, the emission of greenhouse gases like Carbon dioxide (72%),18% Methane and 9% Nitrous oxide (NOx) must be reduced.see effect of global worming in natural life.
It is seen that Carbon dioxide emissions therefore are the most important cause of global warming.The emissions of CO2 have been dramatically increased within the last 50 years and are still increasing by almost 3% each year.

September 30, 2009

Effect of Global worming in natural life

Effect of Global worming in natural life

QUIVER TREE This striking giant aloe was given its name by the San people of southern Africa, who use the tree's hollow branches as quivers for their arrows. Scientists have discovered that quiver trees are starting to die off in parts of their traditional range. The species might be in the early stages of moving southward, trying to escape rising temperatures closer to the equator.

PINON MOUSE This tiny resident of the southwestern U.S. has long eked out its living in juniper woodlands, but in California it is heading for higher, cooler altitudes in the High Sierra conifer forests. The mouse is one of several small mammals in the region that have moved their homes 1,000 to 3,000 ft. higher in elevation over the past century.

RED-BREASTED GOOSE Twenty-six bird species, including this goose, which breeds in the Arctic, are listed by the World Conservation Union as threatened by global warming. Half are seabirds whose food supplies are diminished because of climate changes. The rest are terrestrial species, including several whose coastal habitats are at risk because of rising sea levels.

September 24, 2009

Impact Of Renewable Energy On Our Oceans

 Impact Of Renewable Energy On Our Oceans Must Be Investigated, Say Scientists:

Scientists from the Universities of Exeter and Plymouth are calling for urgent research to understand the impact of renewable energy developments on marine life.
The research highlights the capacity for marine renewable energy devices to boost local biodiversity and benefit the wider marine environment. The study also points out that such devices could have negative environmental impacts, resulting from habitat loss, collision risks, noise and electromagnetic fields.

It highlights the gaps in our understanding of the effects of marine renewable energy devices on the health of our oceans. The team calls for more research to improve our understanding of these threats and opportunities. The researchers also stress the importance of considering the impact on marine life when selecting locations for the installation of marine energy devices.

 Author Dr Brendan Godley of the University of Exeter said:

 "Marine renewable energy is hugely exciting and it is vital that we explore the potential for it to provide a clean and sustainable energy source. However, to date research into the impact of marine renewable energy on sea life has been very limited. . Our study highlights the urgent need for more research into the impacts of marine renewable energy on marine life. This will involve biologists, engineers and policy-makers working together to ensure we really understand the risks and opportunities for marine life."

July 22, 2009

Pollution free Hybrid Vehicle

Fuel cell is a pollution free conversion device.It use fuel and oxidant to produce electricity. A hydrogen fuel cell uses hydrogen as its fuel and oxygen as its oxidant.A typical fuel cell produces a voltage from 0.6 V to 0.7 V at full rated load.A fuel cell system running on hydrogen can be compact and lightweight, and have no major moving parts. Because fuel cells have no moving parts and do not involve combustion, in ideal conditions they can achieve up to 99.9999% reliability.The stationary fuel cell application generates constant electric power and at the same time produces hot air and water from the waste heat.This fuel cell find its major application in transport system .

July 13, 2009

Due to Climate change civilisation may collapse

From the report to Look at the future of the Planet has said that due to climate change,
"billions of people will be condemned to poverty and much of civilization will collapse".

The impact of the global recession is a key theme, with researchers warning that global clean energy, food availability, poverty and the growth of democracy around the world are at "risk of getting worse due to the recession". The report adds: "Too many greedy and deceitful decisions led to a world recession and demonstrated the international interdependence of economics and ethics."

Although the future has been looking better for most of the world over the past 20 years, the global recession has lowered the State of the Future Index for the next 10 years.

Half the world could face violence and unrest due to severe unemployment combined with scarce water, food and energy supplies and the cumulative effects of climate change, according to the report.The scope and scale of the future effects of climate change - ranging from changes in weather patterns to loss of livelihoods and disappearing states - has unprecedented implications for political and social stability.

The immediate problems are rising food and energy prices, shortages of water and increasing migrations due to political, environmental and economic conditions, which could plunge half the world into social instability and violence.

The effects of climate change are worsening, with predictions suggesting that by 2025, there could be three billion people without adequate water as the population rises still further.Massive urbanisation, increased encroachment on animal territory, and concentrated livestock production could trigger new pandemics.

July 8, 2009

Early seasons due to greenhouse gas effect

Due to increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations Spring now arrives sooner than it did 50 years ago, say scientists.

Greenhouse gases are chemical compounds that contribute to the greenhouse effect. When in the atmosphere a greenhouse gas allow sunlight (solar radiation) to enter the atmosphere where it warms the Earth’s surface and is re- radiated back into the atmosphere as longer-wave energy (heat). Greenhouse gases absorb this heat and ‘trap’ it in the lower atmosphere.

The rapid increase in atmospheric concentrations of the three main human-made greenhouse gases – carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide – is clear from the data sets for these gases over the last 420,000 years.

July 6, 2009

The Top Ten worst pollution problem in World

Blacksmith Institute and Green Cross Switzerland released (2006 and 2007) lists of the "World’s Worst Polluted Places." Each problem listed below and then explained later.

  1. Ground Water contamination
  2. Industrial Mining Activities
  3. Metal Smelter and processing
  4. Radioactive waste
  5. Untreated Sewage
  6. Urban Air Quality
  7. Lead acid Battery Recycling
  8. Contaminated Surface Water
  9. Indoor air pollution
  10. Gold mining

Groundwater contamination occurs when man-made products such as gasoline, oil, road salts and chemicals get into the groundwater and cause it to become unsafe and unfit for human use. Some of the major sources of these products, called contaminants, are storage tanks, septic systems, hazardous waste sites, landfills, and the widespread use of road salts, fertilizers, pesticides and other chemicals.Source

Mining is generally very destructive to the environment. It is one of the main causes of deforestation. In order to mine, trees and vegetation are cleared and burned. With the ground completely bare, large scale mining operations use huge bulldozers and excavators to extract the metals and minerals from the soil. In order to amalgamate (cluster) the extractions, they use chemicals such as cyanide, mercury, or methylmercury. These chemicals go through tailings (pipes) and are often discharged into rivers, streams, bays, and oceans. This pollution contaminates all living organisms within the body of water and ultimately the people who depend on the fish for their main source of protein and their economic livelihood.

Small scale mining is equally devastating to the environment, if not more. Groups of 5-6 men migrate from one mining site to another in search of precious metals, usually gold. There are two types of small scale mining: land dredging and river dredging:

  • Land dredging involves miners using a generator to dig a large hole in the ground. They use a high pressure hose to expose the gold-bearing layer of sand and clay. The gold bearing slurry is pumped into a sluice box, which collects gold particles, while mine tailings flow into either an abandoned mining pit or adjacent forest. When the mining pits fill with water from the tailings, they become stagnant water pools. These pools create a breeding ground for mosquitoes and other water-born insects. Malaria and other water-born diseases increase significantly whenever open pools of water are nearby.
  • River dredging involves moving along a river on a platform or boat. The miners use a hydrolic suction hose and suction the gravel and mud as they move along the river. The gravel, mud, and rocks go through the tailings (pipes) and any gold fragments are collected on felt mats. The remaining gravel, mud, and rocks go back into the river, but in a different location than where it was originally suctioned. This creates problems for the river. The displaced gravel and mud disrupt the natural flow of the river. Fish and other living organisms often die and fishermen can no longer navigate in the obstructed rivers. source

Metal processing plants and smelters are facilities that extract various metals from ore to create more refined metal products. Metals include copper, nickel, lead, zinc, silver, cobalt, gold, cadmium, etc. Smelting specifically involves heating the ore with a reducing agent such as coke, charcoal or other purifying agents. Primary smelting processes mine ore and concentrates, whereas secondary smelting processes recover scrap.

Exposure to airborne pollutants from metal processing and smelting can lead to various acute and chronic diseases. Initial sudden exposure can lead to an irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. More serious and chronic effects are heart and lung problems, and even premature death. Heavy metals also pose chronic health risks including bioaccumulation of toxic elements in organisms, which can result into birth defects, kidney and liver problems, gastrointestinal tract issues, joint pain, as well as nervous, respiratory and reproductive system damage. In La Oroya, Peru, a lead smelter operating since 1922 is blamed for the high levels of lead, a heavy metal, in the local children. A study from 2002 found that eighty percent of children tested in the area have blood lead levels two and three times greater than accepted levels.5 The study also found that 73% of La Oroya’s children between the ages of 6 months and six years had lead levels between 20 and 44 μg/dL, and 23% were found with levels higher than 45 μg/dL, which is almost quadruple the WHO limit of 10 μg/dL.source

Radioactive waste is a waste product containing radioactive material. It is usually the product of a nuclear process such as nuclear fission. However, industries not directly connected to the nuclear industry may produce quantities of radioactive waste. The majority of radioactive waste is "low-level waste", meaning it contains low levels of radioactivity per mass or volume. This type of waste often consists of used protective clothing, which is only lightly contaminated but still dangerous in case of radioactive contamination of a human body through ingestion, inhalation, absorption, or injection. Other sources include medical and industrial wastes, as well as naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) that can be concentrated as a result of the processing or consumption of coal, oil and gas, and some minerals.source

Sewage refers to liquid wastes containing a mixture of human feces and wastewater from non-industrial human activities such as bathing, washing, and cleaning. In many poor areas of the world, sewage is dumped into local waterways, in the absence of practical alternatives.According to a UNEP report published on 3 October 2002, almost 40 per cent of world population lives in coastal areas less than 60 kilometres from the shore, most of which are being threatened by untreated sewage discharges. The report was compiled in response to a target agreed upon at the World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, to halve by the year 2015 the number of people without access to basic sanitation services.source

Airborne pollutants can be classified broadly into two categories: primary and secondary. Primary pollutants are those that are emitted into the atmosphere by sources such as fossil fuel combustion from power plants, vehicle engines and industrial production, by combustion of biomass for agricultural or land-clearing purposes, and by natural processes such as windblown dust, volcanic activity and biologic respiration. Secondary pollutants are formed within the atmosphere when primary pollutants react with sunlight, oxygen, water and other chemicals present in the air.

According to the World Health Organization’s air
quality standards, the concentration of suspended particulates should be less
than 90 micrograms per cubic meter. In
many cities, however, this number is several
times higher.

High concentrations of suspended particulates adversely affect human health, provoking a wide range of respiratory diseases and exacerbating heart disease and other conditions. Worldwide, in
1995 the ill health caused by such pollution resulted in at least 500,000 premature deaths and 4–5 million new cases of chronic bronchitis. Most of the people at risk are urban dwellers in developing countries, especially China and India. In many Chinese cities air quality is so poor that nationwide, economic losses caused by excess illness and mortality of urban residents are estimated at 5 percent of GDP. According to estimates for 18 cities in Central and Eastern Europe,18,000 premature deaths a year could be prevented and $1.2 billion a year in working time lost to illness could be regained by achieving European Union pollution standards for dust and soot.

Major health effects associated with outdoor air pollution are typically associated with chronic pulmonary and cardio-vascular stress from the fine particles and include increased mortality, respiratory and cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, asthma exacerbation, acute and chronic bronchitis, restrictions in activity and lost days of work. The health effects of outdoor air pollution fall disproportionately on infants, children and the elderly.source

Lead has a unique properties and characteristic to be used in various manufacturing or manufacturing processes. The most common use of lead today is to manufacture automotive, industrial and domestic batteries. It’s been a very important factor in today’s lead-acid battery manufacturing. These batteries give power in various situation and condition. Three basic uses of lead-acid battery are to give start to our vehicles, power to electrically operated vehicles and when power fails it powers our offices, hospitals, homes and many of the places in emergency.

About 6 million tons of lead is used annually, on a worldwide basis, of which roughly three-quarters goes into the production of lead-acid batteries, which are used in automobiles, industry and a wide range of other applications. Much of this existing demand for lead is met through the recycling of secondary material and in particular from lead recovered from Used Lead-Acid Batteries (ULAB). This high level of recycling is very effective in reducing the volumes of lead dumped in the environment and in minimizing the need for mining more ores. However, in many places, much of the recycling is done on an informal basis, in unhygienic and dangerous conditions and resulting in serious lead poisoning of the recyclers themselves and the neighboring communities.

Acute lead poisoning can occur when people are directly exposed to large amounts of lead through inhaling dust, fumes or vapors dispersed in the air. However, chronic poisoning from absorbing low amounts of lead over long periods of time is a much more common and pervasive problem. Lead can enter the body through the lungs or the mouth, and over long periods can accumulate in the bones. Health risks include impaired physical growth, kidney damage, retardation, and in extreme cases even death. Lead poisoning can lead to tiredness, headache, aching bones and muscles, forgetfulness, loss of appetite and sleep disturbance.

Freshwater makes up less than three percent of earth’s water, but is the source of virtually all drinking water.Pollutants of the water systems are typically pathogens arising from human waste (bacteria and viruses), heavy metals and organic chemicals from industrial waste. Ingestion of pathogens through drinking contaminated water or with food prepared using contaminated water is the most common pathway. Eating fish from contaminated waters can be risky, since they can absorb and concentrate both pathogens and toxics such as heavy metals and persistent organics. In addition, human health may be affected by crops that take up pollutants from contaminated water used for irrigation or from land flooded by polluted rivers.

Fertilizer, animal manure, and waste-treatment plant effluent all contain nutrients that stimulate excessive plant and algal growth in freshwater bodies. When the plants die and decompose, dissolved oxygen is depleted, causing die-offs of fish and other species living in the water. Persistent organochlorine insecticides, such as DDT, deposited in lake sediments can bioaccumulate, harming the fish and birds that eat them. Pyrethroid insecticides, though derived from chrysanthemums, are extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. Estrogen-mimicking substances such as some pesticides and industrially produced chemicals have been shown to interfere with the reproductive system of fish.

Human and animal fecal waste contain disease-carrying organisms such as the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) and pathogens that causes cholera, typhoid, and cryptosporidiosis. Cholera is rarely seen in the United States, but E. coli outbreaks are not rare, and in 1993, more than fifty people died, and an estimated 400,000 became ill from a massive outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The outbreak was attributed to a failure in drinking water treatment, allowing the cyst form of the parasite, introduced by animal waste, to pass into tap water and be ingested. Ten outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis were reported in the United States between 1990 and 2000.

Mercury bioaccumulates in fish and can damage the nervous systems and brains of humans. It can interfere with normal behavior in birds, such as loons, causing them to spend less time looking for food or incubating eggs. About one-quarter of breeding adult loons have higher-than-normal (10 parts per million) levels of mercury. source

Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) describes the adverse ambient air conditions inside households, schools, places of work and other indoor spaces. This can be caused by a range of sources, including stoves, smoking and machinery. Most IAP occurs in the developing world.

More than three billion people worldwide continue to depend on solid fuels, including biomass fuels (wood, dung, agricultural residues) and coal, for their energy needs.

Cooking and heating with solid fuels on open fires or traditional stoves results in high levels of indoor air pollution. Indoor smoke contains a range of health-damaging pollutants, such as small particles and carbon monoxide, and particulate pollution levels may be 20 times higher than accepted guideline values.

Indoor Air Pollution mostly affects health through inhalation, but can also affect the eyes through contact with smoke. IAP happens largely in the household where cooking, sleeping, eating and other activities take place. Women and children are therefore most at risk. The burning of biomass fuels adds to particulate. Particles with diameters of less than 10 microns (PM10) and particularly those less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) are small enough to penetrate deeply into the lungs. ,

Artisanal gold mining is one of the most significant sources of mercury release into the environment in the developing world, with at least a quarter of the world’s total gold supply coming from such sources.2 Artisanal gold miners combine mercury with gold-carrying silt to form a hardened amalgam that has picked up most of the gold metal from the silt. The amalgam is later heated with blowtorches or over an open flame to evaporate the mercury, leaving small gold pieces. The gaseous mercury is inhaled by the miners and often by their immediate family, including their children. Mercury that is not inhaled during the burning process, settles into the surrounding environment or circulates globally for future deposition far from the site, where it is absorbed and processed by a variety of living organisms. This transforms elemental mercury into methylmercury. Methylmercury is one of the most dangerous neurotoxins that contaminate the food chain through bioaccumulation.

Children that are exposed to mercury are particularly at risk for developmental problems. Exposure to mercury can cause kidney problems, arthritis, memory loss, miscarriages, psychotic reactions, respiratory failure, neurological damage and even death.source

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July 5, 2009

Steps to reduce Plastic pollution

A lot of plastic products are produced annually. Obviously quite a lot of that material goes into landfill and small quantities are recycled. However quite substantial amounts do enter the environment as litter or debris. It's estimated that about eight million items of litter go into the sea every day, and much of that is plastic. Most of this plastic in sea found floating on the surface.

The following steps may be helpful for reduce Plastic pollution:

1.Take no plastic bags from the grocer’s shelf.

2.Refuse plastic bags at the check-out counter.

3.Don’t buy plastic sandwich bags.

4.Buy beverages in sustainable containers.

5.Buy fresh produce in Mother Nature’s wrappers (shell, rind, husk, etc.).

6.Give up Tupper Ware and related products.

7.Make a habit of thinking about what comes with each thing that you buy.

8.Make a habit of thinking more in general.

Last i want to say that Plastic causes serious damage to environment both during its production and disposal. So the only way to reduce the hazards of plastic is to reduce the use of plastic and thereby force a reduction in its production.

June 30, 2009

Effect of Air pollution in women health

Women exposed to air pollution in urban areas during pregnancy have smaller fetuses than those in areas with cleaner air according to the study by researchers at Queensland University in Brisbane, Australia.

The air pollution of concern is from urban areas, which tends to be mainly caused by automobile emissions, especially sulphur dioxide (s20)from diesel engines. Nitrogen dioxide(n20) and particulate matter from automobile engines are also included.

Dr. Adrian Barnett suggests that women seriously consider reducing their exposure to this form of air pollution during pregnancy. Those who live near major roads are most at risk.

The study compared fetus sizes of 15,000+ ultrasound scans to levels of air pollution in different areas within a 14 km radius of downtown Brisbane. The fetuses were between the 13th and 26th weeks of development.If the pollution levels were high, the size of the fetus decreased significantly.

Nitrogen dioxide has been linked to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) by University of California, San Diego researchers in a 2005 study. SIDS is characterized by the sudden and unexplainable death of a seemingly healthy infant aged one month to one year.

Furthermore, a 2004 study by researchers from Sao Paulo University in Brazil found that fewer boys were born in polluted areas. Female fetuses tend to be more apt at surviving harsh conditions in the womb and during birth. In areas with the least pollution, 51.7% of the babies born between January 2001 and December 2003 were male. In the most polluted areas, 50.7% were male.

The researchers in Brazil did another study with male rats in filtered and unfiltered ambient air. After four months of these conditions, the male rates were mated with female rats not exposed to pollution. Males from the filtered air produced young of a 1.34 male/female ratio. Males from unfiltered air produced young of a 0.86 male/female ratio. Some hypotheses that can be drawn from these results are that pollution increases the ratio of female/male sperm produced, pollution damages male sperm more than female sperm, or that both are damaged the same amount but males are less able to withstand the damage. The exact mechanism is unknown.
Thanks: naturenews

June 28, 2009

Energy and climate change

Human consume energy by burning organic sources (oil, coal, gas, biomass) and other human activities have changed the chemical composition of the Earth’s atmosphere, which in turn will influence the behavior of global climate patterns such as:
  • Wetter winters and drier summers with longer, hotter and more frequent heat waves.
  • Weather and climate changes that could require farmers to raise different crops.
  • Dairy cattle with heat exhaustion and growing pest populations.
  • Poor air quality and higher concentrations of ground-level ozone, an air pollutant that causes severe health problems.

June 27, 2009

Plastic pollution in the sea and land

The plastic bags you bring home from the supermarket probably end up in a landfill. Every year, more than 500 billion plastic bags are distributed, and less than 3% of those bags are recycled. They are typically made of polyethylene and can take up to 1,000 years to biodegrade in landfills that emit harmful greenhouse gases. Reducing your contribution to plastic-bag pollution is as simple as using a cloth bag (or one made of biodegradable plant-based materials) instead of wasting plastic ones.

A lot of plastic products are produced annually. Obviously quite a lot of that material goes into landfill and small quantities are recycled. However quite substantial amounts do enter the environment as litter or debris. It's estimated that about eight million items of litter go into the sea every day, and much of that is plastic.Most of this plastic in sea found floating on the surface.A lots of plastic on the deep sea bed as well now. As plastics stay in the sea, they become fouled by marine organisms and this alters the overall density of the plastic object so that plastics that floated when they first entered the sea become negatively buoyant and sink to the seabed.

It's a big problem not only with animals in the sea but animals in general.

Way to combat climate change

“Your planet needs you-Unite to combat climate change”

The planet is ours and we need to combat climate change together. Then how to combat? According to the UNEP, there is 12 ways to do this...................

1. Make a commitment : Reducing the carbon footprint is no different from any other task. Only telling people to reduce carbon emissions may seem simplistic, but even simple actions like announcing a commitment to going carbon neutral can be effective, while the simple act of asking for ideas can lead to creative and innovative solutions. In recent months, several countries have indicated that they will go carbon neutral, led by Costa Rica, New Zealand and Norway.

2.Assess where you stand: It is likely that carbon will eventually be judged as an atmospheric pollutant and regulated accordingly, with consequent costs and opportunities for all sectors of society. Knowing where and how we generate greenhouse gases is the first step to reducing them. For individuals and small businesses, online calculators and internal assessments can help start the process. Larger organizations may need specialised advice and tools.

3. Decide and plan where you want to go : Based on the assessment of climate-related risks and opportunities, a strategy and action plan can be developed. Targets help focused efforts and also provide a benchmark for measuring success. Most homes or businesses can reduce energy use by 10 per cent which almost always results in a 10 per cent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

4. De-carbon your life: There is a broader way to think about carbon and climate. Everything an individual, organization, business or government does or uses embodies some form of carbon, either in products themselves or in the energy and materials it takes to make them. Buildings, fittings and equipment are all proxies for carbon. Integrating climate friendly criteria into decision making can trigger a ripple effect.

5. Get energy efficient : Improving the efficiency of our buildings, computers, cars etc. is the fastest and most lucrative way to save money, energy and carbon emission. While conventional buildings can account for almost 40 per cent of CO2 emissions, high performance, environmentally accountable, energy efficient and productive facilities are now economically possible.

6. Switch to low carbon energy : We can switch to energy sources that emit less carbon and can reduce costs and emissions. Since the lowest carbon energy source the hydro power generation -- has long-term negative impact and in here, we don't have enough wind power, we can switch over largely to solar power that is very much available round the year in this tropical country. In many parts of the world customers can choose to have a percentage of their electricity supplied from a renewable energy source. These 'green choice' programmes are maturing and proving to be a powerful stimulus for growth in renewable energy supply.

7. Invest in offsets and cleaner alternatives : There is a limit to how much efficiency we can squeeze from our lifestyle or our organization's operations, or how much renewable energy we can employ. The choice for those who wish to compensate for their remaining emissions is to fund an activity by another party that reduces emissions. This is commonly called a 'carbon offset' or 'carbon credit'.

8. Get efficient : Looking at our life or business through a carbon neutral lens can help us in other ways by increasing the efficiency of resource use, avoiding and reducing waste and ultimately improving the overall performance. After all, carbon is generally the waste product of producing energy, and reducing waste and becoming more efficient is always a good idea.

9. Offer or buy low carbon products and services : The market for climate friendly products and services is growing rapidly, from energy efficient products to new renewable energy systems. To offer such products, however, it's important to begin at the design stage. Actions as simple as adding energy efficient specifications into the design process, for example, can produce a design that minimizes energy consumption during its use and saves customers the time and energy from making adjustments to a product after a purchase.

10.Buy green, sell green : The market for green products and services is growing rapidly. In many countries consumer surveys report that growing numbers of consumers are willing to buy green products if given the choice. For businesses, innovative product design and presentation combined with responsible marketing and communication can help ensure that this consumer interest translates into purchasing.

11.Team up : Many private sector companies are increasingly working with non-governmental organizations, cities or governments to identify and implement best practice solutions to reduce emissions. The Carbon Disclosure Project, for example, is an independent non-profit organization providing information for institutional investors with a combined US$41 trillion of assets under management.

12.Talk : The increasing importance of climate change means that companies and organizations will need to communicate. Transparency is critical. The internet and other new media mean that companies, organizations and governments cannot hide behind green wash. This is where tools for verification and reporting guidelines with recognized indicators are critical.

At last you be the one who can help to Save this World.

June 25, 2009

Cause of Land pollution

Contaminating the land surface of the Earth through dumping urban waste matter indiscriminately, dumping of industrial waste, mineral exploitation, and misusing the soil by harmful agricultural practices causes Land pollution.

Land Pollution Comprises Of Solid Waste and Soil Pollution.

Solid Waste:

Some of the sources of solid waste that cause land pollution are:

1.Wastes from Agriculture

2.Wastes from Mining

3.Wastes from Industries

4.Solids from Sewage Treatment



Soil Pollution:

Soil pollution is mainly due to chemicals in herbicides (weed killers) and pesticides (poisons which kill insects and other invertebrate pests). Litter is waste material dumped in public places such as streets, parks, picnic areas, at bus stops and near shops.soil pollution results from:

* Unhealthy methods of soil management.
* Harmful practices of irrigation methods.

Land pollution is caused by farms because they allow manure to collect, which leaches into the nearby land areas. Chemicals that are used for purposes like sheep dipping also cause serious land pollution as do diesel oil spillages.

Air pollution due to Carbon Monoxide(co)

Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a colourless, odourless poisonous gas produced by incomplete, or inefficient, combustion of fuel causes air pollution.
It forms during the incomplete combustion of fuels that contain carbon. Vehicle exhaust makes up more than 60% of all CO emissions nationwide, and is one of the most dominant pollutants in cities. CO can also come from forest fires, and its concentrations are the highest during cold weather.

This gas prevents the normal transport of oxygen by the blood. This can lead to a significant reduction in the supply of oxygen to the heart, particularly in people suffering from heart disease.The initial symptoms of CO poisoning are similar to the flu. They include fatigue, dizziness, irregular breathing, cherry red lips, nausea, headache, paleness, and coughing.The Centers for Disease Control estimates that each year, 1,500 Americans die from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. About 900 of these deaths occur in homes and are preventable .

Any fuel-burning appliance that is not adequately vented and maintained can be a potential source of CO, including:

* gas appliances (furnaces, ranges, ovens, water heaters, clothes dryers, etc.)
* fireplaces, wood and coal stoves, space heaters, charcoal grills, automobile exhaust fumes, camp stoves, gas-powered lawn mowers, and power tools


June 22, 2009

Ozone risks life

Scientific concern about the future of man's fragile environment has ranged from pollution of the oceans and the air to radioactive contamination in a nuclear war. Now researchers are turning their attention to the atmosphere's ozone layer, which protects all life below from a lethal overdose of the sun's ultraviolet light. Their ominous findings: the vital blanket of gas is so fragile that it might well be severely damaged or destroyed by large-scale atmospheric nuclear tests, to say nothing of military and civilian supersonic aircraft, and even the widespread use of aerosol sprays.

Ozone is a form of oxygen that has three instead of the usual two atoms of oxygen in each molecule of gas. It is formed when ordinary molecules of oxygen are ripped apart by radiation or discharges of electricity, and is most noticeable after a lightning storm, when it can be detected by its pungent smell. 

Environment friendly Solar power

Renewable energy technologies like wind and solar were the fastest growing new sources of electricity in the World.Electricity may be generated from solar power in two way:
  1. silicon panels
  2. solar thermal
In silicon panels technique ray is direct converted to electricity and in Solar thermal process mirrors used to focus the heat of the sun, creating steam that can drive electric turbines.
The advantages of concentrated solar power (or solar thermal, as it's also known) is that utilities can build commercial-scale plants that could potentially replace fossil fuel-powered plants for a lot less money than what it would take to install thousands of distributed solar photovoltaic panels.

June 21, 2009

Toxic waste kill Dolphins

Toxic waste in the Mekong River is a factor pushing an endangered dolphin species to extinction, the WWF warned on Thursday, estimating there were less than 80 left in a stretch of water between Cambodia and Laos.
Conservation group the World Wildlife for Nature (WWF) said high levels of mercury and other pollutants had caused the deaths of 88 Mekong River Irrawaddy dolphins since 2003, over 60 percent of them calves under two weeks old.
The WWF said limited genetic diversity due to inbreeding was another factor in the deaths of the Mekong dolphins, which were isolated from other members of the species.

However, one Cambodian specialist, Touch Seang Tana, who heads a group called Mekong River Dolphins Conservation, denied the animal was in danger of extinction and estimated there were 150 in Cambodia,1,000 lived in Asia, including in India, Myanmar and Thailand.

The Mekong River Irrawaddy dolphin is listed as a critically endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
The WWF researchers also warned that pollutants found in the Mekong water could affect the health of millions of humans who rely on resources from the river.

Global warming braked less than expected by haze

Air pollution, dust and other tiny particles that can bounce sunlight back into space are braking global warming less than previously believed, a Norwegian study said.

The report, which helps understand how climate change works, said scientific estimates of light-reflecting airborne particles had underestimated a fast build-up of black airborne soot, which has the opposite effect by soaking up heat.

"The black carbon, or soot, emissions have increased fastest," said Gunnar Myhre of the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Cicero) of the report in Friday's edition of the journal Science.

China promote solar systems

China, the world's top greenhouse gas polluter, is trying to catch up in a global race to find alternatives to fossil fuels, blamed for carbon emissions affecting the planet's climate.
Although China supplies half the world's solar panels, it contributes very little to demand as the cost of tapping solar energy to generate electricity remains steep and investors find little economic sense in pursuing solar projects in China where incentives are few.

China's government said in March it will offer to pay 20 yuan ($2.90) per watt of solar systems fixed to roofs and which have a capacity of more than 50 kilowatt peak (kwp).

The subsidy, which could cover half the cost of installing the system, was popular among developers, attracting applications equivalent to the building of 1 gigawatt of solar power.
One GW, or 1 billion watts, is enough electricity to power a million homes.

June 20, 2009

The Canadian government band Chemicals

(Reuters) - The Canadian government proposed on Friday to ban the use of chemicals known as phthalates in soft vinyl toys, dolls, inflatable toys and vinyl bibs that could cause problems if sucked or chewed by a child for extended periods.
But the chemical industry said there was no scientific basis for such a ban.
Health Minister Leona Aglukkaq said studies showed the phthalates, which help make vinyl plastic soft and flexible, may cause liver and kidney failure in young children if it is in their mouths for a long time.
"This is part of our overall efforts to ensure that families have confidence in the quality and safety of what they buy," she said as she announced the proposed regulations.
The American Chemistry Council said
"There is no scientific basis to believe that Health Canada's decision to restrict certain phthalates in children's products will improve public health or meet the stated objective of protecting the health and safety of Canadian children."

Environment friendly plastic bottle

Coca-Cola Co. is developing a new type of bottle that could replace at least some of the
environmentally harmful plastic.It and other beverage-makers now use with more Earth-friendly material made from sugar cane and molasses. They call this project "PlantBottle".
A Coca-Cola spokeswoman said
"the PlantBottle is one of many methods the company is exploring to make its packaging greener."
Lisa Manley said
"We're interested in developing the packaging of the future, which we think is going to be in some ways derived from either plants or something else that is a naturally occurring resource that's not under stress like petroleum."

Coke's new type of bottle would be made from a blend of petroleum-based materials and up to 30 percent plant-based materials. It's initially being made with sugar cane and molasses, a byproduct of sugar production, but other plant materials are being explored.
The blend could make the recycling process easier and cheaper, and reduce the time discarded bottles sit in landfills.
Plastic bottles today are made from a petroleum-based resin known as polyethylene terephthalate. PET bottles are recyclable, but the process can be relatively expensive and complex. PET bottles that aren't recycled can take years to decompose.
Coke is one of the biggest producers of plastic bottles, which are a bane of environmentalists. Consumers drain about a billion PET bottles every week, and only 18 percent to 23 percent are recycled, says the Container Recycling Institute, a nonprofit advocacy group in Washington.

June 19, 2009

Save energy by hang up a clothes line

A recent study by Cambridge University's Institute of Manufacturing found that 60% of the energy associated with a piece of clothing is spent in washing and drying it. Over its lifetime, a T shirt can send up to 9 lbs. of carbon dioxide into the air.Steps that may interested you:

  1. wash your clothes in warm water instead of hot
  2. save up to launder a few big loads instead of many smaller ones.
  3. Use the most efficient machine you can find—newer ones can use as little as one-fourth the energy of older machines.
  4. Dry your clean clothes in the natural way, by hanging them on a line rather than loading them in a dryer.
Altogether you can reduce the CO2 created by your laundry up to 90%.

Reduce carbon emissions around the world

To reduce the use of carbon.Carbone taxes may be applied in Bangladesh.
Carbon taxes are a of set tax rate that placed on the consumption of carbon in any form—fossil-fuel electricity, gasoline—with the idea that raising the price will encourage industries and individuals to consume less.

A 10% flat carbon tax might reduce the demand for carbon about 5% or less, according to an analysis by the Carbon Tax Center, an environmental advocacy group. That may not be enough. Businesses and governments haven't figured out how the two competing regimes can work together, but in the end, the world may need both.

Save energy by change your lightbulb

Household energy may save by using compact fluorescent lightbulb (CFL) rather than using ordinary Bulb.CFLs cost is 3 to 5 time larger then conventional incandescent bulbs but it use one-quarter the electricity with longer life time. A 7-watt CFLs are comparable to a regular 40-watt bulb, 26 watts is the typical CFL equivalent of 100 watts and so on. Another energy saving light source is LED(Light Emitting Diode) which is now under test in house hold .It is energy efficient and cost effective then any other light source.

Save energy save world

By using low -tech and pragmatic techniques we can maximize your new home's efficiency. Oru Bose, a sustainable-design architect in Santa Fe, N.M. says

“Doing simple things could drastically reduce your energy costs, by 40%."

For example, control heat, air and moisture leakage by sealing windows and doors. Insulate the garage, attic and basement with natural, nontoxic materials like reclaimed blue jeans. Protect windows from sunrays with large overhangs and double-pane glass.
Next, consider renewable energy sources like solar electric systems, compact wind turbines and geothermal heat pumps to help power your home. will help you find bamboo flooring, cork tiles, and countertops made from recycled wastepaper.

June 18, 2009

Cause of Arsenic Pollution

Arsenic is an element found in geological formations, particularly in granites also containing copper and tin. As long as the arsenic remains bound in the granite, it causes no problems to people. But in certain conditions, natural weathering of the granite occurs and the arsenic is released into the ground water. Hydrogeologist say that in Bangladesh, the weathering occurs deep in the ground where no oxygen is present and where the sediments contain high concentrations of arsenic-rich iron hydroxides.

To provide microbiologically safe drinking water to 97% of the population more than 3 million tube wells used in Bangladesh.
But now tubewells have generated a new health problem. Arsenic poisoning now noticed on the tube wells. . One tubewell may contain high levels of arsenic while a nearby tubewell in the same village may be free of arsenic. . According to the experience of Taiwan, people in Bangladesh are at higher risk of cancers of the skin and internal organs.

Possible cause of Arsenic Pollution:

1. Arsenic-based pesticides used in agriculture.
2. Natural weathering.
3. Mining, smelting, pesticide spraying and coal burning.

Table of contents

June 17, 2009

Power crisis in Bangladesh and Solar Plant

Bangladesh is an agrarian country.To become a industrial country Bangladesh have to develop its power sector.According to the Report of the Task Forces on Bangladesh Development Strategies for the 1990s, as s of 1991, 73.1% of the total energy consumption comes from biomass fuel, such as agricultural residues, tree residues, fuel wood, and dung. The use of biomass is not only an ineffective means of energy generation, it is also extremely detrimental to the environment. For instance, the forest cover in Bangladesh has been reduced from 15.6% to 13.4% between 1973 and 1987. According to some reports, the present forest cover is less than 9%. The decrease in forest cover contributes, among other adverse affects on the environment, to the increase in flooding propensity.

To meet the energy demand in the future, further research and development of the nuclear energy will continue throughout the world. Many countries in North America and Europe heavily rely on nuclear energy. For example, France uses up to 75% of nuclear energy to meet the national demand. Canada, Germany, UK, Sweden, USA, and Japan also use a significant amount of energy generated by nuclear reactors. According to the Energy Information Administration, the USA produces about 15% of its electricity (477 billion kilowatt-hour) supply from 132 nuclear reactors. India produces about 2% of its electricity (5.5 billion kilowatt-hours) from nine nuclear reactors.

Although nuclear energy is very efficient, it is relatively costly. Also, there are some risks involved in safety procedures and disposal of waste materials generated in nuclear power plants. Occasional accidents can be dangerous.

Another solve of energy crisis is Solar energy.The energy resource in Bangladesh is not unlimited.Solar energy may be the best solution in this situation in Bangladesh.Solar Power Plants - indirectly generate electricity when the heat from solar thermal collectors is used to heat a fluid which produces steam that is used to power generator.The advantage of solar plant is that it is environment friendly and disadvantage is it is costly then any other power system.But solar power is unlimited. Solar energy production needs no fuel, high durability and reliability and being able to operate for prolonged periods without maintenance make it economical for all types of remote applications.

June 16, 2009

Two million people a year killed by air pollution

According to new research examined by the World Health Organization (WHO), air pollution in cities around the world causes roughly 2 million premature deaths each year.

The WHO warned that in order for some cities to meet its recommendations, levels of pollution would need to be cut by as much as three fold. Because many countries currently lack any air pollution standards and many countries are still developing, the WHO acknowledged its guidelines could be difficult to follow.

Traffic Pollution could cause Asthma

Traffic pollution could cause asthma in children, rather than simply trigger attacks.Scientists at the University of California at Davis studied the effect of repeated exposure to ozone - a constituent of traffic smog - on rhesus monkeys.They found that after living in an environment described as "similar to Mexico City" for only a few months, the young animals had developed symptoms of borderline asthma.These included reduced lung capacity, and an apparently increased sensitivity to the dust mite allergen, wheezing when exposed to it for short periods.Monkeys exposed on a regular basis to both ozone and dust mite allergen had more severe reactions, including decreased blood oxygen levels.

June 15, 2009

Ship Breaking in Bangladesh causes pollution

The demolition of ships is a dirty and dangerous occupation.The feasibility of ship-breaking is largely determined by the price of scrap metal.

The Beaches where ship breaking is undertaken become polluted with chemicals and toxic substances and are littered with small, sharp, iron splinters that can cause injury to workers who are usually barefoot. Accidents are not reported or recorded and workers who are affected by occupational disease or accident lose their jobs. Employers usually conceal information when a worker dies as a result of an occupational accident. In most cases, victims' families are not informed as contractors do not use proper names and addresses of their workers.

Tipaimukh Hydroelectric Project and Bangladesh

The Tipaimukh Hydroelectric Project is being constructed near the confluence of Barak and Tuivai rivers, in Manipur, India and within 100km of Bangladesh border. The 164 meter high dam will have a firm generation capacity of 401.25MW of electricity.
According to international laws, without the consent of the downstream river nation and causing environmental damage no one country can control the multi-nation rivers alone. But nobody cares for these international laws. The people of Manipur have been fighting legally to stop the project but have so far been unsuccessful. The Indian government is going ahead with the plan. The Sinlung Indigenous People Human Rights Organisation (SIPHRO) of India said that “the process for choosing it (the project premises) ignored both the indigenous people and the recommendations of the WCD (World Commission on Dams)”.
The proposed dam is only 100 km away from Bangladesh border and even at the construction phase will have an impact on Bangladesh, let alone after its completion.Although the dam is designed to generate electricity and not to divert water from the river, the fact is that India by constructing it is to change or modify the traditional flow and use of the Barak river, that constitutes the source of two rivers, Surma and Kushiara, in Sylhet, which in turn feed the mighty Meghna river of Bangladesh.The anxiety for Bangladesh is that India has not taken Bangladesh into confidence on the details of the dam and therefore Bangladesh cannot properly assess as to how the dam will affect Bangladesh.

Tipaimukh Dam and its effects on Bangladesh:

The use of water of rivers is of two kinds:
(a) Non-consumptive (does not reduce the flow of water of the river)
(b) Consumptive( reduce the flow of water of the river)

For example, dam for hydro-electric power (Kaptai Dam) may be called non-consumptive use, while diversion of water through barrage and feeder canal (Farakka Barrage) is for consumptive use.

Although Tipaimukh Dam may not reduce water, it certainly changes the traditional flow of water that has been running since time immemorial.. The change of river flow of water through construction of a dam would have many ramifications on the lower riparian country, Bangladesh.


So what you think about this article please let me know.Give comment.

June 14, 2009

Nuclear plant in Bangladesh

The word "nuclear" invokes, power plants that depend on atomic energy don't operate that differently from a typical coal-burning power plant. Both heat water into pressurized steam, which drives a turbine generator.Nuclear plants depend on the heat that occurs during nuclear fission, when one atom splits into two.
Nuclear plant provide about 15 % of the world electricity in 2007.In 2008 there are more than 430 operating nuclear power plant.
Now question is what is the problem about Nuclear plant?
Answer is Nuclear Waste.Nuclear waste is the radioactive waste left over from nuclear reactors, nuclear research projects, and nuclear bomb production. Nuclear waste is divided into low, medium, and high-level waste by the amount of radioactivity the waste produces.
In the United States alone "millions of gallons of radioactive waste" as well as "thousands of tons of spent nuclear fuel and material" and also "huge quantities of contaminated soil and water."In the U.S. alone, fossil fuel waste kills 20,000 people each year.Some nuclear waste has very long life time { Tc-99 (half-life 220,000 years) and I-129 (half-life 17 million years) } which dominate spent fuel radioactivity after a few thousand years. The most troublesome transuranic elements in spent fuel are Np-237 (half-life two million years) and Pu-239 (half life 24,000 years).[21] Nuclear waste requires sophisticated treatment and management in order to successfully isolate it from interacting with the biosphere. This usually necessitates treatment, followed by a long-term management strategy involving storage, disposal or transformation of the waste into a non-toxic form.On average, a nuclear power plant annually generates 20 metric tons of used nuclear fuel, classified as high-level radioactive waste. Taking every nuclear plant on Earth into account , the combined total climbs to roughly 2,000 metric tons yearly. All of this waste emits radiation and heat, meaning that it will eventually corrode any container and can prove lethal to nearby life forms.

The approval given to Bangladesh by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to set up nuclear reactors for power generation is an opportunity that the country should seize in order to cope with the ever-growing demand for electricity. It's also a recognition of the fact that Bangladesh is now considered a stable country where nuclear reactors can be built to meet its development needs through power generation.
However, successful use of nuclear technology will depend on a number of factors.

1. A team of experts has to be appointed to study the issue in detail. We have qualified professionals in this field who will get an opportunity to prove themselves once a nuclear reactor is put in place.
2.The memories of Chernobyl are still fresh in our mind.So its doubly necessary to take the precautions and safety measures to prevent mishaps. Even in the United States and the former Soviet Union nuclear plant accidents took place with disastrous consequences.
3. We have to upgrade our maintenance and supervision methods to internationally acceptable levels to be able to safely run nuclear plants.

So what you think, power generation through nuclear reactors is ideal for Bangladesh ? In the shake of high demand of electricity it is essential for Bangladesh.But it can cause serious damage to the environment due to mismanagement.

What you think about this Article. Please let me know.Comment on this Article.

June 13, 2009

Oil pollution kill Seabirds

Oil pollution is a great threat to marine birds, particularly for those that spend a lot of time on the surface of the water such as loons, alcids (puffins, murres, razorbills, etc.), and waterfowl.
Chronic oil pollution can be even more insidious, and in some areas, are likely to kill more seabirds than single large scale spills. Oil and contaminants from illegal dumping of bilge wastes continue to pose an enormous threat to seabirds. For example, in Newfoundland, regular beached bird surveys have resulted in estimates of chronic oiling mortality at at least 300,000 birds each year.

June 12, 2009

Pollution with BPA(Bisphenoal A)

Hormone experts said , they are becoming worried by a chemical called bisphenol A.They said they have gathered a growing body evidence to show the compound, also known as BPA, might damage human health. The Endocrine Society issued a scientific statement on Wednesday calling for better studies into its effects.

BPA can affect the hearts of women, can permanently damage the DNA of mice, and appear to be pouring into the human body from a variety of unknown sources which some politicians say they want taken out of products and which consumers are increasingly shunning.
BPA, used to stiffen plastic bottles, line cans and make smooth paper receipts, belongs to a broad class of compounds called endocrine disruptors.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is examining their safety but there has not been much evidence to show that they are any threat to human health.

"We present evidence that endocrine disruptors do have effects on male and female development, prostate cancer, thyroid disease, cardiovascular disease," Dr. Robert Carey of the University of Virginia, who is president of the Endocrine Society, told a news conference."

Dr. Hugh Taylor of Yale University in Connecticut found evidence in mice that the compounds could affect unborn pups.

"We exposed some mice to bisphenol A and then we looked at their offspring," Taylor told the news conference.

"We found that even when a they had a brief exposure during pregnancy ... mice exposed to these chemicals as a fetus carried these changes throughout their lives."

The BPA did not directly change DNA through mutations, but rather through a process called epigenetics -- when chemicals attach to the DNA and change its function.

Taylor noted studies have shown that most people have some BPA in their blood, although the effects of these levels are not clear.

Dr. Frederick Vom Saal of the University of Missouri, who has long studied endocrine disruptors, said tests on monkeys showed the body quickly clears BPA -- which may at first sound reassuring.

But he said when tests show most people have high levels, this suggests they are being repeatedly exposed to BPA.

"We are really concerned that there is a very large amount of bisphenol A that must be coming from other sources," Vom Saal said.

Dr. Scott Belcher of the University of Cincinnati in Ohio and colleagues will tell the meeting they found BPA could affect the heart cells of female mice, sending them into an uneven beating pattern called an arrhythmia.

"These effects are specific on the female heart. The male heart does not respond in this way and we understand why," Belcher said. He said BPA interacts with estrogen and said the findings may help explain why young women are more likely to die when they have a heart attack than men of the same age.

U.S. government toxicologists at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences expressed concern last year that BPA may hurt development of the prostate and brain.

A 2008 study by British researchers linked high levels of BPA to heart disease, diabetes and liver-enzyme abnormalities.
WASHINGTON, June 10, 2009 (Reuters)

June 11, 2009

Devices for detecting Toxins

Electrical Engineers Develop Microplasma Device to Detect Toxins

Electrical engineers have developed a new, portable lab that identifies chemicals by their unique color signatures. It is the first such device to be portable, allowing scientists to recognize potentially deadly chemicals right on the scene of crime, terrorist attacks, or industrial accidents.

Jeffrey Hopwood, an electrical engineer at Plasma Science and Engineering at Northeastern University in Boston, invented a portable microplasma device to detect deadly toxins in the air. He says,
"So when I hold this to the fluorescent light, you can see mercury in the spectrum and the plasma source is only about the size of a human hair."

This portable microplasma device is extraordinary because of its size. It can be taken anywhere. It uses a spectrometer to measure the unique set of colors or wavelengths emitted by dangerous chemicals. "Any time you excite a sample gas it will emit a unique signature of color or wavelengths," Hopwood says.

Depending on the color, researchers can determine the type and amount of contamination. For example, sulfur dioxide is released from burning coal and causes acid rain. The device would give off a blue-green color, indicating sulfur.

The device is lightweight and cheaper than all the other detection devices. Currently desktop-size machines tests for contaminants but samples cannot be analyzed on scene.
The microplasma device is currently used for industrial purposes.

Northeastern University researchers have built a portable, cell-phone-sized device that can quickly detect tiny amounts of contaminants in the air from natural disasters, industrial accidents, or terrorist attacks. Slated to become commercially available in the next year, the device uses some of the same technology used in cell phones and plasma televisions to create a smaller, cheaper, and lighter portable unit for performing chemical analysis, instead of bulky lab equipment requiring thousands of watts of power.

HOW IT WORKS: The microplasma device converts samples taken from the air into very small plasmas and then measures the unique set of light colors (wavelengths) that are subsequently emitted by the electrically charged atoms and molecules. A cell-phone chip supplies the radio-wave energy needed to create the microplasma. Instead of beaming those radio waves to the outside world, that energy is concentrated inside the unit, in a microscopic gap -- about one-half the width of a human hair -- within a thin ring of gold. All that energy in so small an area causes the collected gases in the gap to become what scientists call 'ionized': the electrons are stripped from the gas atoms. The device watches the light emission from the plasma to determine if there are any contaminants in the air. It can do this because every chemical element has a distinct "signature" in the form of what kind of light it will emit under those circumstances.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and AVS -- the Science and Technology Society contributed to the information contained in the TV portion of this report.

Pollution and pollutants remove process

Pollutants that enter the air can be removed in several different ways.

Particulates:Particulates are very small pieces of solids, mainly carbon, that are released into the air during incomplete combustion. Since they are solids, they will stick to other solid materials that they come into contact with.
Sulfur dioxide:Sulfur dioxide is formed when fuels containing sulfur compounds are burned. Sulfur dioxide reacts with water and oxygen in the air to produce acid rain. This removes sulfur dioxide from the air, but the acid rain corrodes buildings and kills plants.
Nitrogen dioxide:Nitrogen dioxide also reacts with water and oxygen in the air to produce acid rain.
Carbon dioxide:Carbon dioxide is produced by burning fossil fuels, such as like coal, oil, petrol and natural gas.

Plants remove some of the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, because they use it in photosynthesis. Here is the word equation for photosynthesis:

carbon dioxide + water → glucose + oxygen

This process uses energy from sunlight. The energy has been absorbed into the plant by the green pigment chlorophyll.

Carbon dioxide is also removed from the atmosphere when it dissolves in both rain water and sea water. As a result rain water becomes slightly acidic, and the oceans are a huge reservoir of dissolved carbon dioxide.

Not all the carbon dioxide we produce is removed from the atmosphere. The level of CO2 is steadily increasing, and this contributes to global warming.

Noise pollution cause serious health damage

Noise pollution is one kind of energy pollution. It occurs when the exposure of people or animals to levels of sound that are annoying, stressful, or damaging to the ears.Normally the sound that affect wildlife, human activity, or are capable of damaging physical structures on a regular, repeating basis may term as sound pollution.
In rural areas, train and airplane noise can disturb wildlife habits, thereby affecting the manner in which animals in areas around train tracks and airports hunt and mate.
On city streets noise pollution can be caused by hydraulic horns of vehicles (the most harmful offenders), microphones and cassette players. The hydraulic horns used by buses, trucks and scooters in the crowded city streets are dangerous for human being.
Noise intensity is measured in decibel (dB) units. At 45 dB of noise the average person generally cannot sleep. At 120 dB the ear registers pain; hearing damage begins at a much lower level, about 85 dB.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), generally 60 dB sound can make a man deaf temporarily and 100 dB sound can cause complete deafness.The DOE (Department of Environment) states that noise causes mental and physical illness among the people. It causes high blood pressure, headache, indigestion, tachycardia, peptic ulcer, and also affects sound sleep. Anyone may become deaf for the time being if 100 dB or more noise pollution occurs for half an hour or more in any place.

Steps that can be taken to prevent it :

(1) Implementation of the Noise Control Rules.
(2) Complete banning of the vehicular hydraulic horns in any place of the country.
(3) Expanding the monitoring programs at the main traffic points to determine whether the
vehicles follow the orders or not.
(4) Improving traffic control.
(5) To be relocated the bus/truck terminals at the out side of city.
(6) Banning the loudspeakers from processions and meetings, high volume of audio players
from roadside small business enterprises.
(7) Banning industrial activity in residential areas.
(8) To be established underground and overhead transportation system in the city.
(9) Growing public awareness on sound pollution.

June 8, 2009

Pollution due to Plastic

Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semi synthetic organic amorphous solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular weight, and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce costs.

plastics are composed of polymers of carbon and hydrogen alone or with oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine or sulfur in the backbone.

June 7, 2009

Karnafully River Water of Bangladesh is under pollution

The Karnafully is one of the most important River of Bangladesh. It is called the mother of Chittagong city because it feeding the city in many ways and also contents the all kinds of garbage of that city and it play an important role in the communication system of the whole region. From the beginning the importance of the river was very much and increasing day by day. But at present that river is under pollution.
In a recent study show that due to industrial wastes, municipality sewage and agricultural runoff on the river water she is nearly facing Biological death. Standard temperature for sustaining aquatic life is 20-30 (0C) where as current temperature is 230C.

Traffic pollution problem in Dhaka city

In Dhaka city the daily total emissions of NOx, HC, CO, PM, and SOx are estimated whish is equivalent to: 42, 39, 314, 14, and 42 tons/day, respectively. Daily average concentration of NOx (NO2, NO) were measured at 28 street locations in Dhaka city during November, 1996.
Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), photochemical oxidants e.g., ozone (O3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and lead (Pb) are the pollutant species. In spite of great improvements in most developed countries due to reduced use of leaded fuels, highway emissions of lead remain a persistent air quality problem. Recent studies indicate that motor vehicles are also a major or primary source of other toxic air pollutants including 1.3-butadiene, benzene and a number of carcinogens, associated with particulate matter.

June 6, 2009

Environment activists demand pollution free Kirtonkhola River

The environment activists of Barisal demanded pollution free Kirtonkhola River for which they formed a human chain in front of Aswani Kumar Hall on the eve of World Environment Day on Wednesday afternoon. The programme was organized by district committee of Institute for Environment and Development (IED) and Barisal Social Advancement Society (BSAS).
Journalist Gopal Sarkar, child organizer Jibon Krishna Dey, environment activists Khorshed Alam, Tapan Sarkar, Bandana Nath and others, addressed the gathering to make the participants aware of the evils of the river going polluted.
They said that continuing pollution of the water of the river has been threatening the existence of

aqua in the river and endangering the riverside people, who depend on river water sources reportedly contacting skin and water-borne diseases.
The speakers said that the Kirtonkhola River, which were 45 feet deep and more than two kilometers wide 30 years ago, has recently been reduced to 4-10 feet deep and to half a kilometer wide at many points.
The encroacher's are filling the riverside every day while the BIWTA is helping them by depositing dredged earths and sands in the river bed. The filths so deposited in the bed of rivers also made the water polluted, considerably decreasing the depth. Moreover, there is no sewage or industrial waste treatment plant in Barisal. Besides, the pollution problem has been further compounded due to the spilling of various pollutants, including used oil and other wastes created by motorized boats, river launches and ships.
Pharmaceutical, cement factories, ship building dockyards and water transports discharge their toxic liquid and solid waste into the rivers without prior treatment causing serious pollution in the river water, destroying aqua life and threatening public health. Bad smell of polluted water caused by hundreds of makeshift latrines of the nearby slums, water transports, floating body of animals and dumping of waste into the water are common, they said.
Garbage from hospitals, clinics, poultry farms, kitchen and fish markets and houses of the riverside families also found their destination in the rivers, said the speakers.
On the other hand, the people living by the rivers, which are mostly poor and use river water for household works and bathing, were suffering from various skin and water-borne diseases, the speakers added. The participants finally asked all concerned and the people to become conscious in this regards in the interest of the future.

June 5, 2009

Air pollution and its effect on health

Air is 99.9% nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and inert gases. Air supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live.
There are several main types of air pollution
1. Smog
2. Acid rain
3. The greenhouse effect
4."holes" in the ozone layer
Each of these problems has serious implications for our health and well-being as well as for the whole environment.
Another type of air pollution is the presence of particles into the air .Generally this is for the burning of fuel for energy. Diesel smoke is a example of this particulate matter . The particles are very small pieces of matter measuring about 2.5 microns or about .0001 inches.The exhaust from burning fuels in automobiles, homes, and industries is a major source of pollution in the air.

June 4, 2009

Source of Arsenic Contamination of Drinking Water in Bangladesh

Arsenic is a deadly poison with a history of use in intrigue and assassination.But the element and its derivatives are also used in many industries, such as metal smelting and as a component in products ranging from insecticide to micro-chips.And unfortunately, it is also found in abundance in the soil and rock in Bangladesh. It's leached up through the water table in tens of millions of water wells across the country.The source of arsenic in soil water is still a controversial issue and yet to be resolved.So what is the cause of Arsenic Pollution in Bangladesh?
  • Scientists say that sedimentation with arsenic laden soils began in this region about 25,000-80,000 years back in the Quaternary era which was most popularly known as the Younger Deltaic Deposition or YDD.


In Bangladesh over 18 millions people are drinking arsenic poisoned water daily
Arsenic is a slow killer that accumulates in the body resulting in nails rotting, dark spots, bleeding sores, swelling, large warts and a form of gangrene. It is carcinogen increasing the risk of skin cancer and tumors of the bladder, kidney, liver and lungs.
Arsenic is naturally occurring in pyrite bedrock underlying much of West Bengal. The poisoning began to occur as millions of kiloliters of water was being pumped out from deep within underground reservoirs. As a result the water level dropped and exposed the arsenic-bearing pyrite to air leading to oxidisation, a reaction which flushed arsenic into the remaining water.

Villagers in Jampukkur, first noticed something was wrong in the 1970’s when dark spots spread across their bodies. They finally learned they were drinking arsenic contaminated water in 1993 when official tests showed 95% of the village wells were contaminated.

Pollution and waste management in Dhaka

A study recently conducted by the Institute of Water Modeling, with the support of the World Bank, has revealed that the water being supplied in certain points of Dhaka has “extremely high organic pollution.” The same report also mentions the high concentration of dissolved solidschlorides, sulphates, ammonia, cadmium and the heavy metal chromium. It has also been pointed out that in some localities like Hazaribagh and Tarabo, near the Buriganga, the concentration of some chemicals is higher than elsewhere. The tanneries in these areas have been identified as the polluters.
Some Wasa officials, on condition of anonymity, have admitted that the water in these rivers are so polluted that, even after treatment with required chemicals, it is not completely free of ammonia. The presence of other elements reduces the transparency of the water and sometimes gives it an undesirable smell. Experts have indicated that drinking such polluted water for a long time increases the risk of different diseases, and definitely affects the liver. There is also heightened possibility of jaundice.