February 6, 2010

Environmental balance can achive by Sustainable use

WATER and life are synonymous. Life is bountiful in terms of diversity and ecosystem-health in those regions on the earth where there are good sources of water supply either from stream, rain or groundwater aquifer. Not only life in the natural ecosystems is inevitably dependent on water but abundant supply of safe water is essential for healthy human life. Already we are facing water crisis at different places in the world. Conflicts are rising at local, regional and interntional level concerning rights to have access to water.
Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)
Conflict over trans-boundary rivers is a major concern in the arena of international relation now-a-days. For instance, Farakka barrage remained the most burning issue between Bangladesh and India, Bangladesh being deprived of its righteous share of the Gangetic water. The demand for water from domestic to industrial sector is just soaring over the current years while pollution of water sources such as lakes, rivers and also ground water is rising in scale due to inconsiderate disposal of solid and liquid waste in the water bodies. The rivers around the city are so polluted that water harnessing from these rivers by water supplying authority is no more economically feasible. The recent clean Buriganga drive is praiseworthy but it will take time for the river water to be harnessed for domestic use.
Meanwhile too much extraction of ground water is creating a great threat for the city dwellers with apprehension of earthquake cooming bigger and here comes the relevance of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). According to Global Water Partnership (GWP), IWRM is a process which promotes the loordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital eco-systems thus maintaining an environmental balance.
Principles of IWRM:
* Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource, but essential to sustain life, development and the environment.
* Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners and policymakers at all levels.
* Women play a central part in the provision, management and safeguarding of water.
* Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognised as an economic goods.
IWRM aims at:
* Efficiency to make water resources go as far as possible.
* Equity in the allocation of water across different social and economic groups.
* Environmental sustainability, to protect the water resources base and associated eco-systems.
Impacts of Flood Control Drainage Irrigation (FCDI):
* Land degradation: micronutrient deficiencies
* Open water fisheries: loss of connectivity
* Water quality issues
* Drinking water and sanitation problems
* Social issue: control over common property resources
* Impact on wild life and biodiversity
* Increase in hazards from failure of infrastructure
Challenges and issues in water management:
* Ever expanding water needs of a growing economy and population.
* Maintaining food security for this huge population puts tremendous challenge (Additional food grain demand of 9.5 million tons in 2025)
* More and more agricultural land is being taken up for urban and other uses
* Preserving natural ecosystems
* Maintaining environmental equilibrium

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